Artificial bone substitutes
Transplanting own bone and bone blocks
Prerequisite for success in fixing the implant in the jawbone is sufficient. For the implantation of the bone should be enough as the height of the alveolar process, and width, and for aesthetic result it should be at least 1 mm of bone labial (outer) and the lingual or palatal (inside) side of the implant.
However, as we have learned with you before, 2-3 months after the extraction of tooth, the process of atrophy begins. If the period up to the implant does not occur, the loss of bone tissue can be significant. Also shortage of bone can occur due to a very traumatic tooth extraction, because of the anatomical location of the tooth (tooth when the hole is not located in the center of the alveolar ridge and the outer, respectively, extraction of the tooth is often accompanied by loss of the thin outer wall of the hole). The blood supply due to the wells of the recipient plays a crucial role in the subsequent healing of periodontal graft material as the ability to penetrate into it newly formed vessels.
There are many techniques and materials to restore lost bone. Let us examine them.
How can we restore the lost bone volume?
First, by one’s bone – this method is called autologous. Autoimplantation is an area of bone taken from the patient out of the chin area of the external oblique lines or branches of the lower jaw. And for this purpose you can use the land of the hard palate, jaw exostosis (growths in the jaw), hills of the upper jaw in the area of missing wisdom teeth. In extreme cases, the portions of the iliac crest, ribs are used for the capacity for taking large amounts of bone. Using the patient’s own bone for bone augmentation is the “gold standard” of a grafting, since the transplant contains identical organic and inorganic substances, viable cells responsible for the presence of bone growth factors. The healing process and fill in the free autograft bone depend on a number of factors. But the most basic is sparing surgery with minimal trauma to accelerated graft reconstruction for a much shorter period of implantation of new blood vessels in the periodontal graft region – when compared with the injured graft. An own bone may be used in the form of blocks or transplanted bone cuttings (crushed to a size of 0.5-1 mm bone granules). A small amount of bone can also be collected using at the time of implant intervention catcher bone (bone trap).
Secondly, you can use the bone, which is a donor to another person. This bone is called an allograft. Usually this cadaver bone which is exposed to numerous treatments (radiation, freeze drying, acid wash chemicals etc.) to make it neutral, and immune responses to avoid contamination from the donor. Allograft bone is autograft substitute which is obtained from bone tissues of the same type and in which no viable cells. Wound healing after such grafts passes slower because of the lack of viable bone cells.
Thirdly, you can use the xenograft – bone tissue of animal origin. Such a bone with a specific microstructure is more readily available than human material. Animal protein materials are stripped to a lack of immune responses in the patient. Therefore xenografts dissolve and are replaced with new bone extremely slowly.
Fourthly, there are no materials of human or animal origin, artificially produced materials for transplantation – alloplasts. These materials are hydroxylapatite, its derivatives, bioceramics for transplantation. There are many techniques and materials to build a bone. There are certain indications for the use of certain osteoplastic materials. Each physician chooses the implant technique on a base of the specific situation.