Caries is the disease, which occurs due to the effects of acids in the mouth.
Tooth consists of enamel and dentin; they are dense mineralized tissue in large numbers contain calcium in the form of hydroxyapatite crystals within these dense tissue are vessels and nerves – it is a soft tissue.
Enamel is the hard tissue of the human body made of 95% of minerals. This is a surface layer of the tooth, covering the part of the tooth, which is located above the gums.
The dentin presents the bulk of the crown and root. Dentin is less mineralized tissue (amount of minerals – hydroxyapatite does not exceed 70%), and therefore less dense tissue.
How does dental caries occur?
Acids, which are formed by the activity of microorganisms, dissolved mineral structure of the tooth and form a cavity. Sweet food is both a source for microbial, because it causes destructive processes. The biggest amount of bacteria is located in plaque.
CARIES occurs as follows:
Plaque is formed where it can the most easily get fixed. In connection with this release, such localization of tooth decay:
1. In fissures.
2. Between the teeth.
3. Root caries.
Cavities on the chewing surfaces of the teeth
The teeth are the grooves and furrows – fissures. They may be of different depths and create good conditions for fixing bacteria that causes tooth decay. Usually during brushing, it is almost impossible to get to the fissures. Thus, plaque accumulates more and more, leading to the development of caries.
Deep fissures create good conditions for oral bacteria to gain a foothold. Bacteria getting sugar as food, reproduces, secures a sticky mass and forms plaque. These bacteria produce harmful acids for teeth which can not be washed away by saliva. Acid readily penetrates to the tooth enamel and forms cavities.
The diameter of the brush bristles slightly greater than the fissures so when a person cleans the teeth it is impossible to get to the bottom of it. Constant bad cleaning of the plaque leads to its accumulation and the formation of cavities.
How to prevent the formation of cavities on the chewing surfaces of the teeth
To do this, refer to the dentist who will fill these fissures by sealing material – Silant. Due to this procedure, to clean out plaque will become much easier, and the surface of the tooth will look smoother.
CARIES between teeth
Interdental areas are very exposed to the risk of tooth decay. In the interdental spaces there are always the rests of food. It is not possible to clean tooth gaps completely so as a result plaque is accumulated and cavities are formed. To prevent the disease, you should regularly use dental floss.
The contact surfaces of the teeth can not get rid of the plaque completely, because of their inaccessibility. Toothbrush bristles can not reach the contact surfaces.
Permanent plaque leads to its accumulation and the formation of cavities.
How to prevent tooth decay between teeth.
To prevent tooth decay between teeth, you should brush and floss your teeth after meals.
The root of the tooth is covered by enamel; it is composed of dentine and cement. In these tissues there are fewer minerals, making them more susceptible to tooth decay.
The rest of the tooth is the root which is not covered by enamel, and is composed of dentine and cement.
These fabrics inherently contain fewer minerals than enamel, so they are more susceptible to caries. For several reasons, the gums can move away from the tooth (gum recession) and the root surface can be exposed. Naked root surface is easier affected by caries because it is much “softer” than enamel and it is difficult to clean an accumulated plaque at this point.
Causes of gingival recession
Gingival recession occurs more often in middle-aged and elderly. It can occur in one tooth and have a local character, and can be in many teeth or all teeth. With age, the number of causes leading to such changes, increases, and the extent of the recession also increases. Here are some reasons:
– Periodontal disease (gum disease) occurs because of the constant plaque and its accumulation on the surfaces of the teeth.
-Improper cleaning of teeth (Pressure on the toothbrush and brushing movements
back and forth along the teeth) can also cause a reduction in the gums.
Early detection of dental caries
Regular dental visits can help to timely detect tooth decay. The patient can detect caries at a fairly serious stage or by a toothache. The earlier the disease is detected, the easier it will be to continue treatment of dental caries. If decay is not treated, it will penetrate to the very nerve of the tooth. In this case, it is necessary not only to treat dental caries, but also restore nerve. Therefore, it is important to see a dentist twice a year.
The role of X-rays in the detection of caries.
To conduct early detection of caries help X-rays. As during the formation of dental hard tissues, the minerals are destroyed, these areas will be visible on X-ray.
Consider the X-rays pictures. Here you can see the early stage of decay, but it is already evident in the X-ray.
The arrow indicates the shaded area of the tooth enamel – this is the initial caries. These carious lesions may not develop further, if the patient flosses more often and more thoroughly.
In this picture it is clear that in addition to the enamel, dentin is also involved in the process.
In such cases, doctors recommend a treatment of the teeth and put the seal, it is a standard procedure that is performed by the dentists in the clinics in Kiev, Cherkassy and in many other cities.